results and discussion in research example pdf

Results and discussion are two important sections of a research paper, which help to present and analyze the findings of a study. In this article, we will explore the significance of these sections and provide examples of how they are presented in a research paper in PDF format.

The results section of a research paper is where the researcher presents the data that has been collected during the study. It is important to present the results in a clear and organized manner, making it easier for the reader to understand and interpret the findings.

One example of how the results section can be presented in a research paper is through the use of tables and graphs. These visual representations provide a concise and clear summary of the data collected. For example, if a study aims to investigate the effect of a certain drug on blood pressure, the results section can include a table that shows the mean blood pressure before and after the administration of the drug. This table can also include measures of variability such as standard deviation.

In addition to presenting the data, the results section should also provide a description of the statistical analysis that was conducted. This is important as it helps to establish the validity and reliability of the findings. The researcher can use statistical tests such as t-tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if there are significant differences between groups or conditions.

Once the results are presented, the discussion section comes into play. This section aims to interpret and explain the findings of the study. It provides an opportunity for the researcher to discuss the implications of the results and compare them with previous research.

An example of how the discussion section can be presented in a research paper is by addressing each research question or hypothesis in detail. The researcher can discuss the findings in relation to the existing literature and theories. For example, if the study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and academic performance in college students, the discussion section can explore possible explanations for the findings, such as the impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive functioning.

Furthermore, the discussion section can also highlight the limitations of the study. This is important as it acknowledges any potential shortcomings or biases that may have affected the results. For example, if the study had a small sample size, the researcher can acknowledge this limitation and suggest that future research should include a larger sample to enhance the generalizability of the findings.

In conclusion, the results and discussion sections of a research paper are important for presenting and interpreting the findings of a study. By presenting the results clearly and organizing them in tables and graphs, the researcher can make it easier for the reader to understand the data. The discussion section allows the researcher to explain and interpret the results in relation to the existing literature and theories. It is also important to acknowledge any limitations or biases in the study. Overall, these sections are crucial for advancing knowledge and contributing to the research field.


1. Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 2: quaiitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(12), 738-744.

2. Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: principles and methods. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


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